Essay on Corruption

Corruption refers to a form of lawless exertion or dishonesty. Utmost notable, the act compromises the rights and boons of others. Likewise, corruption mainly involves exertion analogous as bribery or embezzlement. Still, corruption can be in multitudinous ways. Utmost presumably, those in positions of power are vulnerable to corruption. Corruption easily refers to greedy and selfish behavior.

Styles of Corruption
Firstly, bribery is the most common form of corruption. Bribery involves the infelicitous use of favors and gifts in exchange for particular gain. In addition, the types of favors are different. Above all, favors include capitalist, gifts, company shares, favors, employment, entertainment and political earnings. In addition, there may be particular benefits- giving preferential treatment and blinking crime.

Embezzlement refers to the act of taking back property for the purpose of theft. Further, it’s by one or further persons who were entrusted with these parcels. Corruption is a global form of corruption. Utmost notable, it refers to the illegal use of a politician’s authority for particular gain. Likewise, a popular system for corruption is misappropriation of public capitalist for the benefit of politicians.

Fleecing is another major form of corruption. It means carrying property, capitalist or services immorally. Above all, this is achieved through coercion with individualities or associations. Therefore, fleecing is tantamount to blackmail.

Partisanship and nepotism are truly old forms of corruption that are still in use. It refers to a person who favors his own relatives and buddies for a job. This is easily a truly illegal practice. This is because multitudinous meritorious contenders fail to get the job.

Also, a person misuses his power and authority. An illustration might be that of a judge unjustly dismissing the case of an offender.

In the end, goods pedaling is the ultimate system also. It refers to using one’s influence immorally with the government or other authorized persons. In addition, it happens to admit preferential treatment or favor.

Ways to stop corruption
An important way to help corruption is to pay better hires in government jobs. Multitudinous government workers get truly low hires. Hence, they resort to bribery to meet their charges. So government workers should get farther payment. As a result, advanced hires will lower their provocation and resolve to engage in bribery.

Another suitable way of curbing corruption may be to increase the number of workers. In multitudinous government services the workload is truly high. It provides an occasion to brake down the work by the government workers. As a result, these workers indulge in bribery in return for faster delivery of work. Therefore, this occasion of bribery can be barred by bringing farther workers in government services. Strict laws are truly important to help corruption. Above all, the shamed need to be punished severely. In addition, there should be effective and speedy performance of strict laws.

Installing cameras at workplaces is a great way to help corruption. Above all, multitudinous would refrain from engaging in corruption for fear of being caught. Also, these individualities would have differently indulged in corruption.

The government should ensure that inflation comes down. Because of the rise in prices, multitudinous people feel their income is too low. As a result, it increases corruption among the millions. Businessmen raise prices to sell their stock of goods at advanced prices. Also, politicians support them because of the benefits they get.

In short, corruption is a great wrong of the society. This wrong should be canceled from the society at the foremost. Corruption is the bane that has entered the minds of multitudinous people these days. Hopefully, with constant political and social sweats, we can get relieve of corruption.

Definition of Corruption
Corruption is defined as the abuse of entrusted power for particular gain. It’s a form of dishonesty or lawless offense committed by an individual or association. This generally occurs when an office- holder or other government/ private hand acts in an sanctioned capacity for particular gain. Still, it can be anywhere in business, government, courts, media, civil society and all sectors.

Corruption breaks trust, weakens democracy and hinders profitable development of the country. India has increased due to corruption, inequality, poverty, social division and environmental extremity. Likewise, it takes multitudinous forms. For illustration, a public domestic is seeking or entering capitalist or favors in return for services. Some other incidents include a politician misusing public capitalist or giving public jobs or contracts to his sponsors, buddies and families, or pots buying officers to get profitable deals.

Ways of corruption
There are multitudinous exertion involved in corruption. Some of them are listed below.

This is the act of giving someone some capitalist or commodity precious in order to convert them to do commodity for them. This is presumably the most common form of corruption in the society.

Fleecing means forcing someone to give commodity through risks.
Fraud It’s the act of deceiving someone to gain capitalist, property etc immorally.
Embezzlement is the fraudulent taking of particular property by someone to whom it was assigned. It’s constantly associated with misappropriation of capitalist.

Conspiracy is a fraudulent agreement or secret collaboration between two or farther parties that limits open competition by defrauding, misleading or defrauding others of their legal rights.

Abuse of discretion
Some cases of corruption involve abuse of discretion.

Healthy Food

Food is important for our body for a lot of reasons. It gives us the necessary energy to work, play and perform our day to day activities. It helps us to grow, strengthens our bones and muscles, repairs damaged body cells and boosts our immunity against external harmful elements like pathogens.

Apart from this, food also gives us a kind of satisfaction which is an integral part of our mental health, but there are some foods which are not healthy. Only foods that contain nutrients in balanced proportions are generally considered healthy. People of all ages should be aware of the benefits of eating a healthy diet as it ensures a disease-free, healthy life for many years in a proper way.

A recommended way is to make a few small modifications at a time. u can gradually add additional healthy options as your small changes get used to.

Building a positive relationship with food is also important. Instead of focusing on what you should avoid, consider what you can add to your plate that will benefit your health like nuts for heart-healthy, major Joe. Reduces levels of low-density lipo proteins called monounsaturated fatty acids (raspberries) for fiber. And especially those substances that inhibit oxidation are what we call antioxidants.

Why is Healthy Eating Important?
Living a healthy lifestyle brings immense rewards. Over time, smart eating choices reduce your risk of heart disease, certain maladies, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and even anxiety and depression. Every day, you’ll have more energy, feel better, and possibly be in a better mood.

It all depends on how long and how good your life is. According to several surveys, a healthy diet includes whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts and fish. On the other hand, a diet high in red or processed meat doubled the chances of dying young.

Healthy Food Types:
Following are the different types of healthy foods and their respective nutritional values:
• Cereals, potatoes, breads and other root vegetables – these are the main sources of carbohydrates. the calories obtained unlocks us to do our work.
• Pulses, milk and milk products, eggs, bird meat, animal meat in limited quantities – they are very great sources of protein naturally present in the world. They build muscle and repair damaged cells of our body, that is, they are important for our immunity.
• Ghee, butter, nuts and dry fruits, edible oil used in moderation – are rich sources of good ***. They provide our body with more energy than carbohydrates but they should be consumed in small amounts.
• Fresh fruits, vegetables and leafy vegetables, fish, eggs, milk – these are good sources of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants necessary for normal body functioning. Although they are required in less quantity, but nowadays nutritionists recommend consuming them more as they help in fighting lifestyle diseases like diabetes, obesity and even cancer.

A balanced diet is when a variety of healthy foods are included in our daily diet along with water and roughage in the right proportion. However, a balanced diet is not the same for all individuals taking into account several factors. It depends on a person’s age, gender, body condition-healthy or suffering from some disease and the type of work or physical activity the human being does.

Benefits of Eating Healthy
Consuming healthy food nourishes both our physical and mental health and helps us stay active for many years. One who breaks down this broad benefit into subtle benefits will see that eating healthy:
• Helps us with weight management
• Reduces the risk of heart diseases, diabetes, poor density, and some cancers etc.
• Helps to elevate the mood
• Improves memory
• Improves digestion and appetite
• Improves sleep cycle

Healthy eating habits are instilled in children early on by their parents. With the right education and physical exercise these habits lead to the holistic development of the individual which eventually becomes the biggest resource of a country.

What is Unhealthy Food or Junk Food?
To fully understand the importance of healthy food in our diet, we must also be aware of unhealthy food, that is, the food that we should avoid. These are mainly junk food which are low in nutritional value and contain excessive amount of salt, sugar and fat which is not healthy for human body.

Junk food is one of the unhealthy consumption in today’s scenario. It makes us more unfit than ever. Now is the time to realize this and adopt the habit of healthy eating for a sustainable lifestyle.

Steps to Improve Eating Habits:
• Make detailed plans; break time; Plan what types of food to include at each meal and keep it weekly and avoid making the process dull and repetitive.
• Cook your own food, minimize outside food. This helps in keeping materials, quality and measurements under control as well as saving money.
• Stock healthy snacks in your kitchen for your appetite instead of processed food so that your options are reduced to consuming unhealthy food.
• Take the process slowly. You don’t have a strict plan; Rest yourself in a healthy mindset. Your mind and body will gradually adjust. Consistency is important.

Myths about Healthy Eating:
• Carrot affects eyesight: According to historical times, during World War II, there was a popular belief that eating a lot of vegetables would help in good repair of a pilot’s eyes. In fact, the fighter pilot’s vision was aided by advanced technology.

However, the myth has persisted since then and many parents still use this legend to get their kids to eat more vegetables. Carrots are high in vitamin A and a great supplement to any healthy diet, but they don’t usually help you look better.

-Free Food: Health foods dominate grocery store shelves, but it’s always a good idea to look beyond the label before’s generally true that anything with less is better for some dairy and meat items.

Canned and processed foods contain fewer *** substitutes as *** substitutes for other dangerous additives. Manufacturers compensate for the loss of **** in packaged cookies, for example, by adding other undesirable ingredients such as sugar.

• Protein Shakes: Pre-made smoothie beverages and protein powder mixes, which generally claim to have less sugar than milkshakes, are likely to be a popular choice among customers for the reasons mentioned above. They both contain equal amounts of sugar and artificial sweeteners.

Hence this isnt true that of all pre-made protein shakes and smoothies. Many of them, especially plant-based blends, still contain nutrients for a balanced diet. Check nutrition labels to make sure there are no added sugars or artificially sweetened mixes.

• Organic food is better: Organically grown foods are better for you. Nutritionists labeling a product as organic does not necessarily mean that it is better than non-organic foods. It is a popular misconception that organic products are nutritionally better than non-organic products. Organic products have the same caloric and nutritional value as non-organic products because it is grown and prepared in accordance with federal regulations.

Cyber crime

Cyber crime – Everyone thinks that only stealing someone’s personal data is a cyber crime. But in actual words we can define that ‘Cyber crime refers to the use of an electronic device (computer, laptop, etc.) to rob someone’s data or try to hurt them by using an electronic device.

Furthermore, it is an illegal activity that covers a range of issues from theft to using your system or IP address as a tool to commit crimes.

Types of Cyber Crime
Broadly speaking we can say that cyber crime is classified into four major types. These are financial, privacy, hacking and cyber terrorism.

Financial crimes They steal money from users or account holders. Similarly, they also steal the data of companies that can lead to financial crimes. Also, there is huge risk in transactions due to them.

Privacy crime involves stealing your private data that you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to this, people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide due to misuse of their data.

In hacking, they deliberately sabotage a website in order to harm or harm the public or the owner. In addition, they destroy or modify existing websites to reduce its value.

Modern day terrorism has progressed much further than it was 10-20 years ago.But threats to any person or property to the level of creating fear is also cyber terrorism.

Cyber Crime in India
People access it for various uses like shopping, movies, music, video games, transactions and e-commerce etc.

In this age of technology and easy access of internet, one can easily get it. Because of this rapid pace of growth over the past decade. In addition, the Internet has opened up a world of information that anyone can connect to.

Due to this, the crime rate especially the cyber crime rate has increased manifold. Apart from this, the rate of movement of data also increases manifold due to the high speed of the internet. Above all, due to all these issues, cyber security has become a major concern for the society.

Laws related to Cyber Crime
In order to prevent the spread of cyber crime and to protect the interest of the people, the government has enacted several laws related to cyber crime. Also, these laws act as protection against cyber crime. In addition, the government has also started cyber cells in police stations to combat the menace of cyber crime at the earliest.

Measures to Prevent Cyber Crime
Cyber crime is not something that we cannot deal with on our own. Similarly, with a little use of our common sense and logic, we can prevent cyber crime from happening.

To conclude, we can say that cyber crime is a dangerous crime against someone’s privacy or any content. Also, we can avoid cyber crime by following some basic logic and using our common sense. Above all, cyber crime is a violation of not only the law but also human rights.

Cybercrime is a dangerous attack, which can be faced by any company or individual. There are a lot of incidents where cyber attacks has caused humongous loss in economy,personal information to companies and individuals due to data hack. We live in a technology-driven age, and every information is now fed onto computers. Cybercrime involves attacking computers and digital devices. These cyber attacks can prove to be dangerous not only for the organization but also for the country. As of now, there are many digital attack cases in India and globally, which are pushing for more security measures. If they are not controlled in the initial phase, then these attacks are also affecting the economy of the country.

What is Cyber Crime?
Cybercrime or attack is defined as a digitally occurring and systematic criminal activity carried out by attackers. There are a ample amount of examples of cybercrime, including fraud, malware viruses, cyberstalking and others. Because of these, government agencies and companies are investing more on the maintenance and recruitment of cybercrime specialists.

Earlier cybercrime was only committed by individuals or small groups. However, now a highly complex cybercriminals network works on attacking systems for data collection. Three groups of cyber crime are below.

  1. Personal
  2. Property
  3. Government

It is a form of cyberstalking, trafficking and grooming. Over the years, this type of cyber crime has been taken seriously by law enforcement agencies. It is now keeping an eye on every such attack on a person.

Just like in the real world where criminals steal property, in the cyber world attackers steal data. Here, the attacker steals a person’s bank details and misuses the credit card for online purchases. By using malicious software, the attacker attacks the assets to disrupt the organization’s system.

(cyber terrorism )this can be a panic as the attacker can get hold of essential documents related to government projects. An enemy nation or terrorist usually carries out such attacks. Apart from these, there is also an economic crime where the hacker steals the money of the user’s account holder. In addition, they steal company data and finances.

Thus, the computer system of the individual is hacked to obtain personal information. Hacking is a punishable act in many countries including India. This is quite different from ethical hacking. In general hacking, various types of software are used illegally to enter the target person’s system. After this the hacker is able to keep an eye on every activity done by the person.

How to Protect yourself from Cybercrime

Anyone using the Internet should use some basic security measures. Here are 11 tips you can use to protect yourself from all kinds of cybercrime.

Use a fully integrated Internet security system
For example, Norton Security, Quick heal Antivirus, McAfee Antivirus, Kaspersky, etc. provides real-time protection against existing or emerging computer malware that includes ransomware and viruses, and helps protect your personal and financial information when connected to the Internet.

Use strong passwords
Do not repeat your passwords on different sites, and change your passwords frequently. Make them complex. That means using a combination of at least 15 letters, 3 numbers, and unique symbols. The password management app can help you keep passwords locked.

Keep your software updated
This is very important for your operating systems and online security software. Cybercriminal hackers often use known useful tools, or bugs, in your software to gain access to your system. Adjusting those exploits and errors can make you less likely to become a victim of cybercrime.

Manage your social media settings
Keep your personal information confidential. The cyber criminals can get your information about personal data for a few data points on social media, so the less you share it publicly. For example, if you are posting the name of your pet or disclosing your mother’s home name, you can disclose the answers to two common security questions.

Strengthen your home network
It is a good idea to start with a strong encryption password and a virtual private network. A VPN will encrypt all the traffic leaving your devices until they reach their destination. If cybercriminals are able to hijack your contact line, they will not catch anything other than encrypted data. It is a good idea to use a VPN whenever you have a public Wi-Fi network, whether you are in a library, cafe, hotel, or airport.

Talk to your children about online
You can teach your children about acceptable use of the Internet without turning off social media. Make sure they know about it can come to you if they encounter any form of cyber bullying, harassment, or cyberbullying.

Keep up to date with major security breaches
If you do any online trade with a person or have an online account on a website portal affected by major security breaches, find out what personal information the criminals have accessed and change your password immediately.

Take steps to protect yourself from identity theft
Identity theft occurs when someone improperly obtains personal data in a manner that involves fraud or deception, usually for the benefit of the economy. How? You may be tricked into providing personal information online, for example, or a thief may steal your email to access account information. That’s why it’s important to monitor your personal data. A VPN – short for virtual private network – can also help protect the data you send and receive online, especially if you access the Internet via public Wi-Fi.

Identity theft can happen online
It is wise to know how you can protect your identity even when you are traveling. There are many things you can do to help criminals avoid accessing your personal information on the street. This includes keeping your travel plans offline and using a VPN when accessing the Internet through your hotel’s Wi-Fi network.

Take care of children
Just as you would want to talk to your children about the internet, you would also want to help them protect themselves from identity theft. Impostors often target young children cause of their Social Security number and online credit past data often mentions a precise slate. You can help prevent identity theft by being careful when sharing your child’s personal information. It is also wise to know what to look for that could put your child’s identity in jeopardy.

Know the steps what to do if you become a victim
If you believe you have become a victim of cybercrime, you need to notify the local police and, in some cases, the Cyber ​​Police and the Central Bureau of Investigation. This is important even if the crime seems small.

Your report may assist the authorities in their investigation or help prevent criminals from injuring other people in the future. If you think that cyber criminals have accessed your identity. Following are the steps you can take to begin the process of preparation for mediation.

• Contact companies and banks where you know a fraud has occurred.
• Set up fraudulent alerts and get your credit reports.
• Report identity theft to the CBI and RBI.

Veer Bal Diwas

Prime Minister Narendra Modi made a big announcement on 09 January 2022 on the occasion of Prakash Parv. Every year on December 26, Veer Bal Diwas is celebrated in the country. On the auspicious occasion of Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Prakash Parv, Prime Minister Modi said, “I am proud to announce that December 26 will be celebrated as ‘Veer Bal Diwas’ from this year. It is a fitting gift for the courage of the Sahibjadas.

“The courage and ideals of Mata Gujri, Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji and 4 Sahibjadas give strength to millions. Never bowed your head before injustice. He envisioned an inclusive and united world.” – By Narendra Modi

Background – Struggle
Guru Gobind Singh fought fearlessly and courageously for the equality of man and for absolute freedom and human rights. The prince lived with dignity. To protect the Anandpur Sahib, he built six forts at strategic locations – Fatehgarh on the other side of the Sutlej River, Holghar, Nirmoghar and on the other bank of the river (Anandpur), Anandgarh, Kesgarh. All this was the envy of the hill kings and the Mughal Empire.

The Guru tried but could not defeat the Hindu leaders of the hills. No matter how hard they tried and repeatedly promised, they feared he would snatch their wealth. Instead, he sought protection from the Mughals, sided with them and continued his fight against the Guru. History would have changed if he had sided with his teacher.

Siege of Anandpur
The Mughal army, with the help of an army of hill leaders, besieged Anandpur Sahib with about 30,000 soldiers. The Rangers and Gurjars of the region also joined them. These troops numbered approximately one million and camped out of the city from the range of artillery fired from inside the forts. Guru has about 10,000 warriors. The siege lasted for almost 8 months.

The siege cut off all supplies to the city and it fell into drought-like conditions. Forty warriors left the owner and left the fort. Hindus and Muslims, who came from outside, asked the Guru to vacate the fort and promised a safe way on his oath. On the assurance of the enemy, the Sikhs inside the fort began to pressure the Guru to evacuate it. He advised them to wait a few more days, but the Sikhs overtook him. Eventually had to give up.

When he came out of the Anandgarh fort on the night of 5 to 6 December 1705, shortly after midnight the enemy attacked the Sikhs along with 500 Sikhs in heavy rain and chased them despite their vows. A fierce battle took place on the banks of the overflowing Sirsa River.

Sarsa crossed
The youngest son is a martyr.
The Guru, his two eldest sons and the Sikhs crossed the Sirsa River towards Chamkaur. Guru Bhai Mani Singh along with Mata Sundari and Mata Sahib Kaur were sent to Delhi. The two little Sahibjadas left their grandmother and their cooking gang took them to their village Kheri.

He betrayed and was arrested for his reporting. Sirhind Nawab and Wazir Khan tried their best to change the two Sahib, but they did not move and remained steadfast. Both innocent children sacrificed their lives for this. He hit the wall with a brick, was removed at once, resurrected and his neck opened for ****.

Battle of Chamakauri
The eldest son is a martyr.
In Chamkaur, Guru Ji, two elder Sahib Jadees and 40 Sikhs took charge of a building called Chaudhary Budhi Chand The Haveli, a building called Chaudhary Buddhi Chand Ki Haveli. The Haveli looks like a small castle with a small fort and wall. It is also known as Gadhi (Fortress) and later as ‘Chamnkaur the Garhi’. The Battle of Chamkaur took place here. Both the elder Sahibjade fought hard here and sacrificed their lives.

The Battle of Muktasari
The decision of the remaining five Sikhs forced Guru to leave Garhi and they reached Muktsar. Here, Mai Bhago and Chalice, who had left the Guru at Anandpur Sahib, rejoined him. The teacher waged a decisive battle with the accompanying Mughals. He blessed his forty dead and badly wounded warriors with salvation.

Later on he went to Talwandi Sabo (Damdama Sahib) near Bathinda. Here, he compiled the second edition of the Granth Sahib and added the verses of the 9th Guru to it. Later, one day before his death in 1708, this sect, known as Damdami Bir, was declared the Guru of the Sikhs – Guru Granth Sahib (now, the word ‘Guru’ added).

Elder sons
The two eldest sons of Guru Gobind Singh – Sahibzada Jujhar Singh and Sahibzada Ajit Singh. Their names matched, because their age difference was almost two years, and they were the older brothers of the younger ones. There was a gap of about 6 years in their age and the age of their two younger brothers. The two elders died together (one after the other) in the battle of Chamkaur.

Sahibzada Ajit Singh
He was born in 1687 AD, and died in 1705 AD.
The Guru Gobind Singh’s eldest son was born to Mata Sundar Kaur in Paunta Sahib, on 26 January 1687. The following year Guru Gobind Singh returned to Anandpur Sahib. Ajit Singh was well-educated, well-versed in the Scriptures, and fully trained on the battlefield – fencing, archery, spearheading, and horseback riding.

On Isisakhi Day, 30 March 1699, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa – the pure ones, by giving the people Amrit – Holy-Drink. Shortly afterwards, a group of Sikhs from Pothohar – Northwestern Punjab, were abducted by the Ranghars in the village of Nuh, near Anandpur Sahib. Ajit Singh was about 12 years old. Guru ji sent him 100 Sikhs on May 23, 1699. He punished Ranghars and returned the looted property.

The following year, 29 August 1700, hill-rajas with the support of state troops invaded the city of Anandpur Sahib. Sahibzada Ajit Singh was assigned to defend the Taragarh fort. He, assisted by Bhai (Brother) Oude Singh, thwarted the attack.
In October 1700, he fought in the battle of Nirmohgarh. On March 15, 1701, Sikh devotees from the Darap region (later, Sialkot County) were led by Gujjars and Ranghars. Ajit Singh prepared them well.

On March 7, 1703, with 100 horsemen, he rescued the Brahmin bride from King Pathan of Bassi.

In 1705, when the government forces and the Rajas hill jointly besieged the Anandpur Sahib, Ajit Singh was in charge of the fortresses, without the attack of the surrounding army. On the night of 5 and 6 December 1705, when Anandpur was evicted. Guru, Ajit Singh was about 17 years old.

He guarded the back of the column, and with the help of Bhai Oude Singh, he successfully joined the enemy on a hill called Shahi Tibbi. Guru, Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, and about 50 Sikhs crossed the Sarsa River in floodwaters. Their grandmother Mata Ganga, Sahibzada Fateh Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh separated from the group.

On the night of 6 December 1705 AD, An enemy army from Ropar in hot pursuit, arrived in Chamkaur, occupying positions at Garhi – a high-walled fort. Garhi was besieged by troops from Ropar with guarantees from Malalerkotla and Sirhind. The local Gujjars and Ranghars also joined.

When the sun came up on December 7, 1705 AD, there was an unequal battle – only 40 facing a million (Zafarnamah by Guru Gobind Singh). When the bullets and arrows were gone, the Sikhs began marching in groups of five to fight with swords and spears. Sahibzada Ajit Singh led one group and laid down his life fighting bravely. Sahibzada Jujhar Singh followed his older brother leading the next collection.

Sahibzada Jujhar Singh
He was born in 1691AD, and died in 1705 AD.
He was the another son of Guru Gobind Singh, born to the late Mata Ajit Kaur on March 14, 1691 AD, in Anandpur Sahib. He was taught the Scriptures and trained in warfare. In 1699 AD, at the age of 8, he took over the Amrit – to be established as a Sikh bound by its code of discipline. He was a handsome, brave and fearless boy, fit for battle at the age of 15 when Anandpur Sahib was besieged. And he had an older brother with goods in the castles. Also, he played a significant role in the invasion of the surrounding Moguls.

He accompanied Guru during the night out of the night between 5 and 6 December 1705 AD, crossed the flooded Sarsa on horseback, and the other delegates arrived at Garhi in Chamkaur on the night of December 6, 1705 AD. The next day, he bravely chased an enemy attack on Garhi where Guru, 40 Sikhs, Sahibzada Ajit Singh, and he also took refuge.

At the end of the day – December 7, 1705, he led the last day of the day (five Sikhs) after his older brother, and laid down his life in a brave battle. As usual, the war stopped at sunset. In the area where Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh crossed, there was Gurdwara Qatalgarh – the site of the massacre. Here, in honor of the martyrs, every year a religious festival is held in December-January.

Guru’s two youngest sons, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh, were reunited, as the age difference between the two was about 3 years old, and both were about 6 years younger than their two older brothers. Both were killed together in Sirhind. Long ago, there was an article, probably written by the late historian Satnam Singh, that showed that their throats were cut and they would bleed to death. Professor Kartar Singh writes that when the wall climbed into their chests, they were beheaded (Sikh Itihas, Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar, 1977, page 428). It is known that the two of them were surrounded by walls, living together.

End of Mughal Law
Five Sikhs pressured Guru to leave Garhi. He donated his Kalgi: a wooden ornament, to Bhai Sangat Singh, and left with three Sikhs, leaving only seven. Later, when Guru had a Muslim minister named Rai Kallah in Jattpura, Mahi Noora (Noora a herdsman) gave Guru the news of the murder of her two young sons. The Guru broke the grass with its arrow, claiming that it was the only Mogul Empire.

Sahibzada Zorawar Singh
He was born in 1696 AD, and died in 1705 AD. He was the 3rd son, born of Mata Ajit Kaur, Anandpur Sahib, 17 November 1696 AD. He was about nine years old when the castle of Anandpur was demolished, on the night of 5 and 6 December, 1705 AD.

After then, Mata Ajit Kaur died on the night of 5 December 1700 AD, and raised by his grandfather Mata Gujri. Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh were with Mata Gujri when the column came out of the castle. As they crossed the Sirsa River on horseback, three of them parted ways with Guru Gobind Singh.

Their chef Gangu accompanied the three of them to his home in Kherri village, which was later renamed Saherri, near Morinda in Ropar District, Punjab. He betrayed me, and at night he stole their wallet and jewelry. In the greed of the prize, on the morning of December 7, 1705, the day of the battle at Chamkaur, he reported the matter to the authorities. Morinda’s officials, Maani Khan and Jaani Khan, detained the three – grandmother and both Sahibzada. The next day, they were sent to Sirhind, and locked up in Thanda-Burj – a cold, towering tower.

As on December 09, 1705, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh were brought before the faujdar commander, Nawab Wazir Khan, who had returned to Sirhind from a battle at Chamkaur. Wazir Khan tried to persuade them to accept Islam, but the Sahibzadae firmly refused, remained steadfast in their faith, and was sentenced to death.

They were both trapped in a wall, and when it hit their chest, they fell down and the wall collapsed. They were resurrected and sent back to Thanda Burj. Nawab Sher Mohd Khan of Malerkotla intervened to save the lives of innocent people, but Sucha Nand in Nawab’s ministry, begged them to die. Wazir Khan again tried their conversion, but they remained indifferent and refused. On December 11, 1705 AD, they were executed. Upon receiving the news, Mata Gujri took one last breath in Thanda-Burj.

Sahibzada Fateh Singh
He was born in 1699 AD, died in 1705 AD The fourth son, Mata Ajit Kaur, Anandpur Sahib, Ropar District, Punjab, 25 February 1699 AD. After his mother’s death on December 5, 1700 AD, he was raised by his grandmother Mata Gujree, and lived with her until her death. On December 11, 1705 AD, he was martyred in Sirhind with his older brother Zorawar Singh.

Dewan Todar Mall, a wealthy merchant from Sirhind, bought a land measuring gold coins, and in this place he burned three Sahibzadae – two small ones and their grandmother. Later, the place was renamed Fatehgarh Sahib – Fortress of Conquest. Thanda Burj – Cold Tower, still standing there. On the wall site stands the magnificent Gurdwara. To commemorate the martyrs, there is a religious exhibition there on December 25 to 28, annually.

Makar Sankranti

Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan or Maghi or simply Sankranti, also known as Paush Sankranti in Bangladesh, here Sam(n)kranti means ‘transfer’, this day is considered to be the day of Sun’s transition into Capricorn.

Number of native festivals are held throughout India. It is celebrated annualy on the occasion when the Sun enters Capricorn which corresponds to the month of January according to the Gregorian calendar. It (remarks) the (first day of the Sun’s transit in Makara )(Capricorn).

Due to the adding of one day in a leap year, the date of Makar Sankranti can vary slightly. In leap years it falls on 15 January, otherwise it falls on 14 January. There are 365.24 days in a year but we are able to use only 365 days. Then we add one day to the leap year. By the time of leap years, the year calendar is trailing the Sun by almost a day, making Makar Sankranti on January 15. When the correction is done Makar Sankranti falls on January 14.

The festivities associated with Makar Sankranti are known by various names like Magh Bihu in Assam, Maghi in Punjab, Maghi Saji in Himachal Pradesh, Maghi Sangrand or Uttarayan (Uttarayan) in Jammu, Sakrat in Haryana, Socrates in Central India, Pongal in Tamil Nadu. . Lord Vishnu and Goddess Lakshmi across India on Makar Sankranti as Magha Sankranti (Nepal), Songkran (Thailand), Thingyan (Myanmar), Mohan Songkran (Cambodia), and Shishur Senkrath (Kashmir) as Sankranti in the state and Telangana God is worshipped.

Indologist Diana L. According to one, represesnts in the Hindu poem Mahabharata. according to this occasion, people pray to the Sun and take a bath at the Prayag confluence of the Ganges River and the Yamuna River, a tradition attributed to Adi Shankara.

Makar Sankranti is determined by the solar cycle and the exact time of the Sun’s entry into Capricorn corresponds to the astronomical event and is observed on a day that usually falls on January 14 of the Gregorian calendar, but on January 15 as a leap year. In. The date and time of Makar Sankranti corresponds to the sidereal time of the zodiac of Makar Rashi (when the Sun enters).

We only have 365 days in a year, so the calendar lags by 1 day in 4 years’ time, so we need to adjust this to leap day, February 29. But Makar Sankranti comes before the leap day correction so every fourth year it falls on 15th January. Due to the leap year, the sidereal time of Capricorn also changes by one day. Similarly, the timing of the equinoxes also changes by one day every 4 years.

For example, the September equinox does not fall on the same date every year and neither does the winter solstice. Any event related to one revolution of the Earth around the Sun will shift this date within a 4-year cycle. Similar changes can be observed at the exact timing of the solstices and equinoxes.

We can see that the time difference between two consecutive winter solstices is about 5 hours 49 minutes 59 seconds, with respect to the time of the winter solstice, and the time difference between two consecutive Mankar solstice is about 6 hours and 10 minutes. . At the end of the 21st century, there will be more occurrences of Makar Sankranti on January 15th in a four-year cycle. And Makar Sankranti (the constellation time of Capricorn) will happen on January 16 for the first time in the year 2102 because 2100 will not be a leap year.

Makar Sankranti and Uttarayan

Uttarayan begins when the circular longitude of the Sun becomes 270° from the vernal equinox, meaning it is a tropical measurement. While both relate to the measurement of 270°, their starting points are different. Hence Makar Sankranti and Uttarayan fall on different days. Makar Sankranti falls on January 14/15 on the Gregorian calendar; Uttarayan is starting from 21st December.

Most Hindu calendars ignore this distinction and also represent Makar Sankranti as the beginning of Uttarayan. Because of the precession of the equinoxes, the tropical zodiac (ie all equinoxes and solstices) shifts by about 1° in 72 years. December Sankranti (Uttarayan) and Makar Sankranti must have occurred at some time in the distant past. The last time such a coincidence happened 1700 years ago was in 291 AD.

This significance of the sun is found in Vedic texts, especially the Gayatri Mantra, a sacred hymn of Hinduism, in its own text called the Rigveda.

It is believed that taking a bath leads to virtuous or destruction of past sins. They also pray to Surya and give thanks for his successes and prosperity. For more people of India, this period is a part of the rabi harvest and the early stages of the agricultural cycle, where the crop has been sown and the labor in the fields is mostly gone.